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Key Literature

  1. Title: A moving issue for women: is low cost transport an appropriate intervention to alleviate women’s burden in South Africa?
    Year: 1990
    Source/Author: Doran J
    Main Theme: Gender, Infrastructure

  2. Title: Of Nets and Assets: Effects and impacts of employment-intensive programs - A review of ILO experience
    Year: 1998
    Source/Author: International Labour Organization
    Main Theme: Employment, Inclusivity

  3. Title: Good Governance: An Overview
    Year: 1999
    Source/Author: International Fund for Agricultural Development
    Main Theme: Governance

  4. Title: A Sourcebook for Poverty Reduction Strategy: Core techniques and cross-cutting issues
    Year: 2002
    Source/Author: World Bank
    Main Theme: Policy, Poverty

  5. Title: Accounting for poverty in infrastructure reform - learning from Latin America’s experience
    Year: 2002
    Source/Author: World Bank
    Main Theme: Poverty, Infrastructure

  6. Title: Integrity, Transparency and Accountability in Public Administration: Recent Trends, Regional and International Developments and Emerging Issues
    Year: 2005
    Source/Author: United Nations Public Administration Network
    Main Theme: Policy

  7. Title: Better practice in supplying water to the poor in global Public Private Partnerships
    Year: 2007
    Source/Author: Atkins Global
    Main Theme: PPP, WASH

  8. Title: The Benefits of Positive Action: Thematic Discussion Paper
    Year: 2008
    Source/Author: International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD)
    Main Theme: Inclusion

  9. Title: Multi-criteria analysis: a manual
    Year: 2009
    Source/Author: Department for Communities and Local Government, UK Government
    Main Theme: Project appraisal, Stakeholder, Policy

  10. Title: Empowering Rural India: Expanding Electricity Access by Mobilizing Local Resources. Analysis of Model for Improving Rural Electricity Services in India through Distributed Generation and Supply of Renewable Energy
    Year: 2010
    Source/Author: South Asia Energy Unit, Sustainable Development Department, The World Bank
    Main Theme: Inclusion, Electrification

  11. Title: Equality Act 2010
    Year: 2010
    Source/Author: UK Government
    Main Theme: Access, Inclusion

  12. Title: Governance rules! The principles of effective project governance
    Year: 2010
    Source/Author: Kelly, Éamonn V.
    Main Theme: Governance

  13. Title: Strategic Community Investment: A Good Practice Handbook for Companies Doing Business in Emerging Markets
    Year: 2010
    Source/Author: International Finance Corporation (IFC)
    Main Theme: PPP, Economics, Inclusion

  14. Title: The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues
    Year: 2010
    Source/Author: Brookings Institution and World Bank Group
    Main Theme: Governance

  15. Title: Inclusive Design Standards
    Year: 2012
    Source/Author: London Olympic Delivery Authority
    Main Theme: Inclusion

  16. Title: Participation strategies the silver bullet for public acceptance?
    Year: 2012
    Source/Author: Rau, Irina, Schweizer-Ries, Petra and Hildebrand, Jan
    Main Theme: Stakeholder Engagement

  17. Title: The impact of infrastructure on growth in developing countries
    Year: 2012
    Source/Author: International Finance Corporation (IFC)
    Main Theme: Infrastructure, Low-income, Inclusion

  18. Title: Best Practices and Case Studies
    Year: 2013
    Source/Author: Community Transport Organisation, and Australian Government 
    Main Theme: Transport

  19. Title: Canadian Women Grabbing the Baton
    Year: 2013
    Source/Author: Royal Bank of Canada
    Main Theme: Gender

  20. Title: Gender and Urban Poverty in South Asia: Proceedings Report of the 2012 Subregional Workshop
    Year: 2013
    Source/Author: Asian Development Bank
    Main Theme: Gender, Poverty, Governance, PPP

  21. Title: Integrating Gender Considerations into Energy Operations
    Year: 2013
    Source/Author: World Bank
    Main Theme: Gender

  22. Title: Minnesota Multi-Purpose Stadium Operations Equity Plan
    Year: 2013
    Source/Author: Minnesota Sports Facilities Authority
    Main Theme: Inclusion

  23. Title: Vulnerability, Risks, and Complexity: Impacts of Global Change on Human Habitats
    Year: 2013
    Source/Author: Kabisch, Sigrun et al.
    Main Theme: Sustainability

  24. Title: Accessibility Design Guide: Universal design principles for Australia’s aid program
    Year: 2014
    Source/Author: Australian Government
    Main Theme: Disability inclusion

  25. Title: Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development
    Year: 2014
    Source/Author: United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
    Main Theme: Inclusion

  26. Title: Maximising the benefits to the poor from infrastructure programs aimed at increasing growth
    Year: 2014
    Source/Author: UK Department for International Development (DFID)
    Main Theme: Low-income

  27. Title: Sustainable Infrastructure for Competitiveness and Inclusive Growth
    Year: 2014
    Source/Author: Inter-American Development Bank
    Main Theme: Infrastructure, Inclusion

  28. Title: Voice, Empowerment and Accountability: Topic Guide
    Year: 2014
    Source/Author: GSDRC and DFID
    Main Theme: Policy

  29. Title: All on Board: Making Inclusive Growth Happen
    Year: 2015
    Source/Author: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
    Main Theme: Inclusive growth

  30. Title: Closing the Last Mile for Millions
    Year: 2015
    Source/Author: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)
    Main Theme: Water, Sanitation

  31. Title: Sustainable Development Goals
    Year: 2015
    Source/Author: United Nations
    Main Theme: Sustainability, Inclusion, Low-income, Inequality, Environment

  32. Title: The Impact of Leadership on the Governance of Infrastructure Development in Nigeria
    Year: 2015
    Source/Author: Onolememen, Michael Oziegbe
    Main Theme: Governance

  33. Title: The Power of Parity: How Advancing Women’s Equality Can Add $12 Trillion to Global Growth
    Year: 2015
    Source/Author: McKinsey Global Institute
    Main Theme: Gender, Equality, Inclusion

  34. Title: Transparency and the Performance of Outsourced Government Services
    Year: 2015
    Source/Author: Mulgan, Richard
    Main Theme: Stakeholder, Governance, Policy

  35. Title: E-Government in support of Sustainable Development
    Year: 2016
    Source/Author: United Nations
    Main Theme: Policy

  36. Title: How about defining Open Government principles?
    Year: 2016
    Source/Author: Open Government Partnership
    Main Theme: Governance, Policy, Inclusion

  37. Title: Infrastructure: A Game-Changer for Women’s Economic Empowerment. A Background Paper for the UN Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Women’s Economic Empowerment
    Year: 2016
    Source/Author: DFID Infrastructure and Cities for Economic Development
    Main Theme: Gender, Infrastructure, Inclusion

  38. Title: International UNECE PPP Forum Implementing the United Nations 2030 Agenda through effective, people-first Public-Private Partnerships
    Year: 2016
    Source/Author: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
    Main Theme: PPP, Inclusion

  39. Title: Leave no-one behind: infrastructure and inclusion
    Year: 2016
    Source/Author: Knowledge, Evidence and Learning for Development (K4D)
    Main Theme: Infrastructure, Inclusion

  40. Title: Leaving no one behind: A critical path for the first 1,000 days of the Sustainable Development Goals
    Year: 2016
    Source/Author: Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
    Main Theme: Development, Policy, Governance

  41. Title: Stakeholder empowerment through participatory planning practices: The case of electricity transmission lines in France and Norway
    Year: 2016
    Source/Author: Späth, Leonhard, and Scolobig, Anna
    Main Theme: Stakeholder, Policy

  42. Title: Strategy for the Promotion of Gender Equality 2016-2020
    Year: 2016
    Source/Author: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
    Main Theme: Gender

  43. Title: Theory and background of multi-criteria analysis: Toward a policy-led approach to mega transport infrastructure project appraisal
    Year: 2016
    Source/Author: Ward, E. John, Dimitriou, Harry T., and Dean, Marco (OMEGA Centre)
    Main Theme: Project appraisal, Stakeholder, Policy, Development

  44. Title: Closing the Financing Gap: Infrastructure Project Bankability in Asia
    Year: 2017
    Source/Author: Chua, Maximillian, Lee, Eddison and Chalmers, Blair (Marsh & McLennan Companies’ Asia Pacific Risk Center)
    Main Theme: Financial inclusion, Infrastructure

  45. Title: Delivering Inclusive and Sustainable Infrastructure: Featured Infrastructure Projects and Initiatives
    Year: 2017
    Source/Author: Inter-American Development Bank
    Main Theme: Inclusion

  46. Title: Economic Inclusion Strategy (EIS)
    Year: 2017
    Source/Author: European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
    Main Theme: Inclusion

  47. Title: Enabling Inclusive Cities: Toolkit for Inclusive Urban Development
    Year: 2017
    Source/Author: Asian Development Bank
    Main Theme: City development

  48. Title: Improving Transparency and Accountability in Public-Private Partnerships: Disclosure Diagnostic Report--Nigeria
    Year: 2017
    Source/Author: World Bank
    Main Theme: PPP, Inclusion

  49. Title: Smart Power for Rural Development: Transforming Lives Through Energy Access
    Year: 2017
    Source/Author: The Rockefeller Foundation
    Main Theme: Energy, Inclusion

  50. Title: Sustaining Communities - What is the spectrum of public participation??
    Year: 2017
    Source/Author: International Association of Public Participation (IAP2)
    Main Theme: Stakeholder, Policy

  51. Title: Transport Pricing and Accessibility 
    Year: 2017
    Source/Author: Brookings Institution
    Main Theme: Transport, Accessibility

  52. Title: Trends and Challenges in Infrastructure Investment in Low-Income Developing Countries
    Year: 2017
    Source/Author: International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    Main Theme: Infrastructure, Low-income

  53. Title: Youth scoping study: Boosting Youth Employment through Infrastructure
    Year: 2017
    Source/Author: Hageman & Limbu for European Institute for Cooperation and Development (IECD) & DFID
    Main Theme: Youth

  54. Title: Advancing Women in Business
    Year: 2018
    Source/Author: Canada-United States Council for Advancement of Women Entrepreneurs & Business Leaders
    Main Theme: Gender, Inclusion

  55. Title: Affordability Issues Surrounding the Use of ICT for Development and Poverty Reduction
    Year: 2018
    Source/Author: Adams, Carl, and Takavarasha Jr., Sam
    Main Theme: Affordability, ICT, Low-income

  56. Title: Community Employment Benefits General Guidance
    Year: 2018
    Source/Author: Infrastructure Canada
    Main Theme: Inclusion, Engagement, Infrastructure

  57. Title: BUILD UP Skills Norway
    Year: 2018
    Source/Author: Intelligent Energy Europe, European Commission
    Main Theme: Policy, Inclusion

  58. Title: Guide to Community Engagement for Power Projects in Kenya
    Year: 2018
    Source/Author: Power Africa
    Main Theme: Public participation, Policy, Development

  59. Title: Humanitarian inclusion standards for older people and people with disabilities
    Year: 2018
    Source/Author: Age and Disability Capacity Program
    Main Theme: Inclusion, Disability

  60. Title: Impact Evaluation of Road Improvements and Rural Poverty— Baseline Survey in the Ningxia Liupanshan Area of the People’s Republic of China
    Year: 2018
    Source/Author: Asian Development Bank
    Main Theme: Transport, Low-income

  61. Title: Infrastructure, Poverty Reduction and Jobs
    Source/Author: International Labour Organization
    Main Theme: Inclusive infrastructure, Low-income

  62. Title: The Changing Wealth of Nations 2018: Building a Sustainable Future
    Year: 2018
    Source/Author: World Bank Group
    Main Theme: Infrastructure, Wealth distribution

  63. Title: Guiding Principles on People-first Public-Private Partnerships in support of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals
    Year: 2019
    Source/Author: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) – Committee on Innovation, Competitiveness and Public-Private Partnerships
    Main Theme: Inclusion

  64. Title: Putting the Guiding Principles on People-first Public-Private Partnerships into practice
    Year: 2019
    Source/Author: UNECE – Committee on Innovation, Competitiveness and Public-Private Partnerships
    Main Theme: Inclusion


The Global Infrastructure Hub (GI Hub) has developed the Reference Tool under one of its key mandate areas: to develop and promote leading practices for delivering quality infrastructure.

The GI Hub team, Morag Baird, Jack Handford, Ping Fu, Rahadian Zulfadin and Stephanie Barker, worked closely with Atkins Acuity to lead the development of a holistic Reference Tool for Inclusive Infrastructure. Atkins Acuity uses its wide expertise to provide social, technical and financial advice on infrastructure projects around the world, delivering results-driven advisory solutions to large institutional programs and infrastructure assets.

The Reference Tool also incorporates contributions from various governments, academics, private companies and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Many people have helped the project team by providing literature sources and expert input, as well as identifying projects and stakeholders to contribute to the preparation of case studies.

The project was also supported by a dedicated consultative board that provided insight, identified projects, and reviewed content. The board members have been involved throughout the project, and we would like to thank them for their valuable contribution.

Two consultation workshops were held while the Reference Tool was in draft format. Government officials attended the workshops from 10 countries across Africa and Latin America, and their contributions informed the final development of the Reference Tool.

Project consultative board 

Gastón Astesiano, Public-Private Partnerships Team Leader, and Isabel C. Granada Garcés, Senior Transport Specialist, Infrastructure and Environment Sector, Inter-American Development Bank.

Barbara Rambousek, Director, Gender and Economic Inclusion, and Kristine Grun, Associate Economist, Economic Inclusion, European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD).
Maninder Gill, Global Practice Director, Social, Urban, Rural and Resilience Global Practice, The World Bank.

Jeff Gutman, Senior Fellow, The Brookings Institution.

Mark Harvey, Head of Profession (Infrastructure), Department for International Development (DFID), UK.

Vidya Naidu, Gender and Inclusion Portfolio Manager, Infrastructure and Cities for Economic Development (ICED) Facility.

Sarah Tessier, Economist, Multilateral Institutions, International Finance and Development Division, Department of Finance, Canada.

Pierre Sarrat, Chief Operating Officer, Sustainable Infrastructure Foundation.

Although not on the Project consultative board, Kirsty O’Connell, Industry Director, and Associate Professor Sara Bice, Research Director, The Next Generation Engagement Program, also provided comments on the project.

Project team from Atkins Acuity

The project team from Atkins Acuity includes Marie Lam-Frendo, Andrea Buetler, Katie Prebble, Stephanie Tseng, Anna Lu, Matt Toy, Aubrey Keller, Georgina Ogden, Jonathan Spear, Andy Hodgson, Julian Jacobs, Francois-Xavier Basselot, Graydon Jeal, Maulik Bansal, Eli Konvitz, Tarek Ashour, David Cox, Ian Reeds, Catalina Gallego Lopez, Leanne Kelly, Jonathan Guest, Paddy Carless, T. Sathiyaa, Ren Ruiyao and Chris Box.


Unless otherwise noted, copyright (and any other intellectual property rights, if any) in this publication is owned by the Global Infrastructure Hub.
© Global Infrastructure Hub Ltd, 2019
ACN 602 505 064
ABN 46 602 505 064
Online Resource ISBN: 978-0-6480762-4-7 (Reference Tool on Inclusive Infrastructure and Social Equity)
Hard Copy ISBN: 978-0-6480762-5-4 (Reference Tool on Inclusive Infrastructure and Social Equity)


This report has been prepared by the Global Infrastructure Hub Limited (GI Hub) in collaboration with Atkins Design Engineering Consultants Pte. Ltd. (Atkins Acuity). The opinions, findings and recommendations contained are not necessarily the views of the G20 member countries, or of other countries that are donors of the GI Hub.

This document contains the expression of the professional opinion of the GI Hub and Atkins Acuity as to the matters set out herein, using their professional judgement and reasonable care. Atkins Acuity has, in preparing the content, followed methodology and procedures, and exercised due care consistent with the intended level of accuracy, using its professional judgement, and reasonable care and interpretation, and is thus of the opinion that the information represents accurate facts, subject always to a reasonable error of margin and interpretation.

However, no warranty should be implied as to the accuracy of information provided. Unless expressly stated otherwise, assumptions, data and information supplied by, or gathered from, other sources (including other consultants, testing laboratories and equipment suppliers, etc.), upon which the GI Hub’s and Atkins Acuity’s opinion as set out herein is based, have not been verified by the GI Hub or Atkins Acuity. Neither the GI Hub nor Atkins Acuity make any representation as to its accuracy and disclaim all liability with respect thereto.

Neither the GI Hub nor Atkins Acuity accept any liability for any use of or reliance on the contents of this document. This document is meant to be read as a whole, and sections or parts thereof should thus not be read or relied upon out of context. The material contained in the report is made available on the understanding that neither the GI Hub nor Atkins Acuity is providing professional advice, and that users exercise their own skill and care with respect to its use and seek independent advice if necessary. The GI Hub and Atkins Acuity disclaim any liability to third parties in respect of the publication, reference, quoting, or distribution of, or reliance on this report or any of its contents to and reliance thereon by any third party.